For Details about how ring works and it’s algorithm check out. @How Ring Algorithm Works? (Election Coordinator)
Many distributed algorithms require a process to act as a coordinator. The coordinator can be any process that organizes actions of other processes. A coordinator may fail so how is a new coordinator chosen or elected? Ring Algorithm
- Each process has a unique number to distinguish them.
- One process per machine (which suggests that an IP address can be the unique identifier)
- Processes know each other’s process number
- Processes do not know which ones are currently up and which ones are down.
- Any node might detect failure first
- Multiple processes might detect failure at once.
- Must run without coordination
- Must deal with arbitrary process failures
- All nodes must agree on when election is over and who the new coordinator is.
Use a ring (processes are physically or logically ordered, so that each process knows who its successor is).
- When a process notices that coordinator is not functioning:
- Builds an ELECTION message (containing its own process number)
- Sends the message to its successor (if successor is down, sender skips over it and goes to the next member along the ring, or the one after that, until a running process is located).
- At each step, sender adds its own process number to the list in the message.
- When the message gets back to the process that started it all:
- Process recognizes the message that contains its own process number
- Changes message type to COORDINATOR
- Circulates message once again to inform everyone else: Who the new coordinator is (list member with highest number); Who the members of the new ring are.
- When message has circulated once, it is removed.
- Even if two ELECTIONS started at once, everyone will pick same leader since node with highest identifier is picked.
- At best 2(N-1 ) messages are passed
- One round for the ELECTION message
- One round for the COORDINATOR
- Assumes that only a single process starts an election.
- Multiple elections cause an increase in messages but no real harm done.
The C++ STL offers the programmer a number of useful data structures and algorithms. It is made up by the following components.
Containers. There are two types:
- Sequential. This group comprises the vector, list and deque types.
- Sorted Associative. This group comprises the set, map, multiset and multimap types.
- Iterators. These are pointer like objects that allow the user to step through the contents of a container.
- Generic Algorithms. The C++ STL provides a wide range of efficently implemented standard algorithms (for example find, sort and merge) that work with the container types. (Some of the containers have special purpose implementations of these algorithms as member functions.)
- Function Objects. A function object is an instance of a class that provides a definition of operator(). This means that you can use such an object like a function.
- Adaptors. The C++ STL provides
- Container adaptors that allow the user to use, say, a vector as the basis of a stack.
- Function adaptors that allow the user to construct new function objects from existing function objects.
- Allocators. Every C++ STL container class uses an Allocator class to hold information about the memory model the program is using. I shall totally ignore this aspect of the C++ STL.
Sorting algorithms are explained in this article to implement them easily. Algorithm To Implement Bubble, Selection, Insertion & Radix/Bucket Sort is explained.
Sorting means bringing some orderliness in the data, which are otherwise not ordered. For example, to print the list of students in ascending order of their birth dates, we need to sort the student information in ascending order of date of birth (student information stored in a file may not be in this order) before generating the print report. In most of the computer applications we need to sort the data either in ascending or descending order as per the requirements of the application. Sorting techniques are broadly classified as internal sort techniques and external sort techniques.
Internal sort is also known as Memory Sort, and it is used to sort the small volume of data in computer memory. Following are the some of internal or memory sort techniques.
- Bubble sort
- Selection sort
- Insertion sort
- Bucket sort
- Radix sort
- Quick sort
- Merge sort
The term External sort is referred to sorting of voluminous data. For example, to create a temporary file sorted on some key from the input file containing thousands of records, we need to divide the input file in small partitions, which can be sorted on the key by using any one of the known internal sort techniques and then merging those partitions on the sorted key to generate new partition of bigger size and this process is repeated until we get only one large sorted partition of size equal to the number of records in input file. In practice most of the times it is not possible to bring the entire data from input file to the memory of computer for sorting and we have to use some secondary storage to store the intermediate results (partitions). Thus in external sort input and output sorted files are stored on secondary storage i.e. disk.
cppprograms’s forum community is dedicated to C/C++ programs. Here is opportunity to share your programming skills with world by sharing your C/C++ programs. Here is guide to share your C/C++ programs.
In this authoritative guide, Schildt details the C++ language, its libraries, and applications, providing insider tips, hundreds of examples, and expertly crafted explanations.
C++ program for stack using linked list with operation push,pop,insert,delete using class of node & stack
This book is intended to teach the design and analysis of basic data structures and their implementation in an object-oriented language. In this edition, the language happens to be C++.Download Open Data Structures for free
Here is Simple Linked List Program To Read & Print Data in cpp. I have used one class for node.In node class I have created constructor & initialize next pointer to NULL . In SLL class I have created two pointer of node class, used simple create & print functions . Checkout programs & let me know for any changes
C program for database using linklist with pizza shop database using programming .